Can a pregnant woman give aids to her baby
What can I do to reduce the risk of passing HIV to my baby? Why is HIV treatment recommended during pregnancy? Why is it important for my viral load and CD4 cell count to be monitored? Should I still use condoms during sex even though I am pregnant? HIV enters the bloodstream by way of body fluids, such as blood or semen.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: How to stop mother to child transmission of HIV
- HIV/AIDS and Pregnancy
- Information for pregnant women who have HIV
- HIV and Pregnancy
- Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV
- Pregnancy and HIV
- We value your feedback
- HIV/AIDS in pregnant women and infants
- HIV and women – having children
- Pregnancy and HIV
- Can HIV be passed to an unborn baby in pregnancy or through breastfeeding?
HIV/AIDS and Pregnancy
Its most recent guidelines on HIV treatment were published in while specific guidelines for pregnant women were published in With the right treatment and care, this risk can be much reduced.
In the UK, because of high standards of care, the risk of HIV being passed from mother to baby is very low. For women who are on effective HIV treatment and who have an undetectable viral load when their baby is born, risk of transmission to their baby is 0. A multidisciplinary antenatal team will look after you during your pregnancy.
This is a team of medical and other professionals with a mix of skills and experience. Your care will still be offered at your HIV clinic, but as well as your HIV doctor and clinic staff, you are likely to see an obstetrician a doctor specialising in pregnancy and childbirth , a specialist midwife and a paediatrician a doctor specialising in the care of children. Other people you may see, depending on your wishes or needs, could include a peer support worker, a community midwife, a counsellor, a psychologist, a social worker or a patient advocate.
UK guidelines for all pregnant women recommend that women have an antenatal care appointment as early as possible — ideally, before 13 weeks of pregnancy. This allows plenty of time to ensure that both mother and baby are in the best possible health. Good antenatal care will also help reduce the risk of passing on HIV and provide support to you in making important choices during your pregnancy.
Your healthcare team and support organisation can help you adhere to any treatment you need to take and answer questions you may have about your health and that of your baby. They can provide support and advice on your eligibility for free NHS treatment, as well as help with any other issues you might have, such as housing, finances, domestic violence or alcohol and drug use.
The team should have the right mix of experience and skills to meet your needs. They should do an assessment of those needs when you first find out you are pregnant, so they can work with you to provide the support you need. This should include assessing whether, for example, you might be at risk of depression during pregnancy or after your baby is born.
As well as having the right mix of skills, good communication between the members of the team is important. This includes keeping your HIV status confidential and managing any disclosure carefully, and with your involvement. You will have your liver function tested regularly during pregnancy, as a change in liver function can be an important indicator of several pregnancy-related health problems unrelated to HIV.
It is also important to monitor liver function if you have started HIV treatment while you are pregnant. Measurement of the amount of virus in a blood sample, reported as number of HIV RNA copies per milliliter of blood plasma. An undetectable viral load is the first goal of antiretroviral therapy. A month-long course of antiretroviral medicines taken after exposure or possible exposure to HIV, to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV. You will also have the tests and examinations that all pregnant women should have as part of their antenatal care in the UK.
These include:. There are some situations where a pregnant woman may be offered a screening test called an amniocentesis. This procedure uses a long, thin needle inserted into the womb to remove some amniotic fluid, the liquid that surrounds the baby, for testing.
Because this process involves a needle piercing the skin and going into body tissue, wherever possible, women with HIV should only have an amniocentesis once they are on HIV treatment and have an undetectable viral load. These drugs can bring your viral load down quickly. Firstly, HIV treatment reduces your viral load so that your baby is exposed to less of the virus while in the womb and during birth. This is also why newborn babies whose mothers are HIV positive are given a short course of anti-HIV drugs this is called infant post-exposure prophylaxis, or infant PEP after they have been born.
When HIV treatment is used during pregnancy, it protects your health as well as preventing HIV being passed on from you to your baby during pregnancy and birth. Having an undetectable viral load greatly reduces the risk of HIV transmission.
While you are pregnant, decisions about your care will sometimes depend on your viral load, and whether or not it is undetectable. As well as reducing the risk of passing HIV on to your baby or to a sexual partner, HIV treatment will strengthen your immune system, reduce the amount of HIV in your body and prevent illnesses from occurring. The sooner you start to take HIV treatment, the sooner you can benefit from it. The closer you get to your delivery date, the more important it is to have an undetectable viral load.
If you start treatment sooner, you will have more time to bring your viral load down to an undetectable level. If you have a high viral load, your doctor may advise that starting treatment without delay is especially important. However many pregnant women have morning sickness — nausea feeling sick and vomiting being sick — in the first three months of pregnancy.
If you are less than 12 weeks pregnant you could talk to your doctor about waiting to start HIV treatment until you are 13 to 14 weeks pregnant, when morning sickness generally stops. This is because some anti-HIV drugs can also make you feel sick during the first few weeks of treatment.
If you do need to start HIV treatment sooner, your doctor can prescribe other medication to deal with sickness, if necessary. In the past, women who had high CD4 counts sometimes stopped taking HIV treatment after giving birth. If you are already taking HIV treatment, in most cases you can keep taking the same anti-HIV drugs during your pregnancy.
This is still the case if you are taking efavirenz Sustiva , also in Atripla. Previous treatment guidelines recommended that women on efavirenz should change to another drug, as it was thought there may be a connection between efavirenz and birth defects. Some women find that they develop some side-effects from their HIV treatment during pregnancy, such as heartburn, even though they are on the same drugs they have taken for some time. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist about how best to deal with these side-effects.
If you are diagnosed with HIV when you are more than 28 weeks pregnant, you will be advised to start HIV treatment straight away.
This is because raltegravir is very effective at reducing viral load quickly. You will also be given a single dose of nevirapine, as well as zidovudine probably intravenously; that is, through a drip throughout your labour and delivery. If you go into labour prematurely before the full term of your pregnancy , a double dose of another drug, tenofovir Viread , may be added to your treatment combination.
If your baby is born very prematurely, they may not be able to absorb HV treatment for the first few days after they are born. The tenofovir provides extra protection for your baby after they are born. Having hepatitis B or hepatitis C as well as HIV can make managing treatment and care during your pregnancy more complicated. Your antenatal care team should work closely with your hepatitis doctor so you get the right treatment and care for your situation.
It will continue to protect your health and lower the risk of passing HIV on to a sexual partner. Some research has shown that adherence levels go down in women after they have had a baby. Discuss any problems you may have taking your treatment with your healthcare team. They will be able to offer support.
Women are often advised to avoid taking medications during pregnancy particularly during the first three months. This is because of the potential risk of drugs interfering with the development of the baby. This is particularly the case if the mother takes a protease inhibitor, and if she is on treatment during the first three months of her pregnancy.
However, this is a controversial issue and other evidence suggests that taking anti-HIV drugs does not cause premature delivery. Your baby will be carefully monitored to ensure he or she is healthy.
Information collected about HIV treatment and some abnormalities in babies has not shown an increased risk with any anti-HIV drugs used currently.
A birth plan is a written record of your preferences for the birth — including things like where you would like to give birth, what pain relief you would like and who you would like to have with you. It can be helpful to let your antenatal team know whether your birthing partner knows your HIV status, so they can maintain your confidentiality if necessary. For women with HIV, your own health and HIV treatment will be a key factor in your birth plan, as these will affect your choice of delivery.
When you are 36 weeks pregnant, you and your antenatal team can discuss the type of delivery you might have that is, how your baby might be born.
Whether or not you have an undetectable viral load will be an important factor in that decision. Ideally, your viral load will be undetectable at 36 weeks of pregnancy.
If you are on combination HIV treatment and you have an undetectable viral load at 36 weeks of pregnancy, you can plan to have a vaginal delivery. The latest evidence shows that having a vaginal delivery does not increase the risk of HIV transmission when a woman has an undetectable viral load.
If you have had a caesarean in the past, but you have an undetectable viral load, you can also plan to have a vaginal delivery. This is often called a VBAC — vaginal birth after caesarean. There may be medical reasons unrelated to HIV that mean it would be safer for you or your baby for you to have a caesarean. Your doctor will look at any non-HIV-related reasons for or against a vaginal delivery, including your views and preferences.
There do need to be facilities for testing your baby for HIV and starting him or her on anti-HIV drugs very soon after the birth, wherever your baby is born.
This makes a vaginal delivery more complicated. A procedure called external cephalic version ECV can be used to turn the baby. It is normally carried out after 36 weeks of pregnancy. However, evidence now shows little or no risk, so these procedures can be used safely if you have an undetectable viral load.
If you have been taking zidovudine monotherapy HIV treatment with one drug , you will have a PLCS, even if you have an undetectable viral load. You are likely to have the PLCS at 38 or 39 weeks of pregnancy. It may be decided that you need a caesarean for another, non-HIV-related reason. If that is the case, doctors will discuss with you when this should happen. If you have been on zidovudine monotherapy during your pregnancy, you will receive zidovudine during your caesarean section.
You can carry on taking it orally by mouth , as you have been doing, or have it intravenously. The baby develops inside a bag of fluid called the amniotic sac. When the baby is ready to be born, the sac breaks and the fluid drains out through the vagina often referred to as the waters breaking. If your waters break before you go into labour, your healthcare team will follow national guidelines on the management of induction and premature labour.
These set out the treatment and care for all women who go into premature labour. If this happens, your baby should be delivered as soon as possible. This is because there is an increased risk of you or your baby developing an infection after your waters have broken.
If your viral load was undetectable at your last viral load test, your labour will be induced started artificially immediately. You will be given antibiotic treatment immediately if there is any sign that you are developing an infection.
These include how long you have been on treatment and how well you have been taking it, and whether your viral load has been falling over time.
Information for pregnant women who have HIV
If you have been diagnosed with HIV and want children in the near future, you probably are wondering if a successful pregnancy is even possible. It's true that having HIV while pregnant is considered a high-risk pregnancy , with the most important complication being the possibility of transferring the virus to your baby. That is no small risk. You know what it is like to live with HIV. This type of pregnancy requires early medical intervention to create an appropriate treatment plan, and mothers will need to be committed to maintaining this treatment throughout gestation.
If you have HIV and are pregnant, or are thinking about becoming pregnant, there are ways to reduce the risk of your partner or baby getting HIV. Regular blood tests are recommended during pregnancy to monitor your health to reduce the risk of your baby becoming infected with HIV. You and your partner need to talk to your HIV specialist about how to reduce the risk of infecting your partner. You should only have sex without condoms when you ovulate. And you and your partner should be checked for any sexually transmitted infections , and have any such infections treated.
HIV and Pregnancy
Yes, they can. Although HIV can pass from a woman with HIV to her child during pregnancy, at the time of birth, or when breast-feeding the infant, medical treatment of both the mother and her infant can minimize the chances of that happening. For their own peace of mind, couples with HIV wanting to have children should receive counseling before making a decision about conception. During counseling sessions, they should ask about ways to minimize the risk to the baby, and how to deal with the possibility of infection. If their health is frail, they should discuss the likelihood that they will survive long enough to parent effectively. And they should learn how to cope if members of their family or community judge and stigmatize them or their child. Q: When should a woman planning to become pregnant start anti-retroviral therapy? Women living with HIV ideally should start antiretroviral therapy ART before pregnancy, both for their own health and to reduce the risk of HIV transmission during pregnancy.
Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV
Mothers with higher viral loads are more likely to infect their babies. The baby is more likely to be infected if the delivery takes a long time. To reduce this risk, some couples have used sperm washing and artificial insemination. What if the father is infected with HIV?
Visit coronavirus. An HIV-positive mother can transmit HIV to her baby in during pregnancy, childbirth also called labor and delivery , or breastfeeding. Women who are pregnant or are planning a pregnancy should get tested for HIV as early as possible.
Pregnancy and HIV
Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is the spread of HIV from a woman living with HIV to her child during pregnancy, childbirth also called labor and delivery , or breastfeeding through breast milk. HIV medicines are called antiretrovirals. Several factors determine what HIV medicine they receive and how long they receive the medicine.
Back to Pregnancy. But if a woman is receiving treatment for HIV during pregnancy and doesn't breastfeed her baby, it's possible to greatly reduce the risk of the baby getting HIV. All pregnant women in the UK are offered a blood test as part of their antenatal screening. Do not breastfeed your baby if you have HIV, as the virus can be transmitted through breast milk. Advances in treatment mean that a vaginal delivery shouldn't increase the risk of passing HIV to your baby if both of the following apply:. In some cases, doctors may recommend a planned caesarean section before going into labour to reduce the risk of passing on HIV.
We value your feedback
Your baby may get human immunodeficiency virus HIV from you during pregnancy, during delivery or from breastfeeding. However, there are ways to significantly reduce the chances that your baby will become infected. During your pregnancy and delivery, you should take antiretroviral drugs used to treat or prevent HIV to lower the risk of passing the infection to your baby — even if your HIV viral load is very low. If you and your baby do not take antiretroviral drugs, there is about a 1 in 4 chance that your baby will get HIV. Your baby should take one or more antiretroviral drugs for the first 4 or 6 weeks of life.
Most of the advice for people with HIV is the same as it would be for anyone else thinking about having a baby. Some extra steps are necessary though to reduce the likelihood of HIV being passed on. This page takes you through the things to consider when having a baby in the UK. From conception to infant feeding, it is important to keep your healthcare team informed so that you can receive specific advice that will work for you.
HIV/AIDS in pregnant women and infants
When a person becomes infected with HIV, the virus attacks and weakens the immune system. As the immune system weakens, the person is at risk of getting life-threatening infections and cancers. When that happens, the illness is called AIDS. HIV can be transmitted to the fetus or the newborn during pregnancy, during labor or delivery, or by breastfeeding.
HIV and women – having children
All A-Z health topics. View all pages in this section. All women should be in the best health possible before becoming pregnant. A diagnosis of HIV does not mean you can't have children.
Its most recent guidelines on HIV treatment were published in while specific guidelines for pregnant women were published in With the right treatment and care, this risk can be much reduced. In the UK, because of high standards of care, the risk of HIV being passed from mother to baby is very low. For women who are on effective HIV treatment and who have an undetectable viral load when their baby is born, risk of transmission to their baby is 0. A multidisciplinary antenatal team will look after you during your pregnancy.
Pregnancy and HIV
Can HIV be passed to an unborn baby in pregnancy or through breastfeeding?