Womens autonomy and intimate partner violence in ghana
This paper exploits unique quantitative data from Ghana to investigate gendered experiences of inter-personal domestic and non-domestic violence in urban and rural areas. Urban areas are characterised by lower levels of domestic violence against women but higher levels of non-domestic violence against men than rural areas. We conduct Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analyses to identify the sources of these differences. Urban areas reduce violence through higher welfare, education and employment outcomes, and lower alcohol consumption and polygamy prevalence than in rural areas. But more people living alone and wider insecurity in urban environments have the opposite effect on domestic and non-domestic violence. ActionAidSEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Hindered Help:African American Partner Violence Victims - Bernadine Waller - TEDxAdelphiUniversity
SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Men, own your role in domestic violence - Christan Rainey - TEDxCharlestonContent:
Gendered Experience of Interpersonal Violence in Urban and Rural Spaces: The Case of Ghana
Domestic violence also named domestic abuse or family violence is violence or other abuse in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or cohabitation. Domestic violence is often used as a synonym for intimate partner violence , which is committed by a spouse or partner in an intimate relationship against the other spouse or partner, and can take place in heterosexual or same-sex relationships, or between former spouses or partners.
In its broadest sense, domestic violence also involves violence against children, parents, or the elderly. It takes a number of forms, including physical , verbal , emotional , economic , religious , reproductive , and sexual abuse , which can range from subtle, coercive forms to marital rape and to violent physical abuse such as choking, beating, female genital mutilation , and acid throwing that results in disfigurement or death.
Domestic murders include stoning , bride burning , honor killings , and dowry deaths which sometimes involve non-cohabitating family members. Globally, the victims of domestic violence are overwhelmingly women, and women tend to experience more severe forms of violence. Research has established that there exists a direct and significant correlation between a country's level of gender equality and rates of domestic violence, where countries with less gender equality experience higher rates of domestic violence.
Domestic violence often occurs when the abuser believes that abuse is an entitlement, acceptable, justified, or unlikely to be reported. It may produce an intergenerational cycle of abuse in children and other family members, who may feel that such violence is acceptable or condoned. Many people do not recognize themselves as abusers or victims because they may consider their experiences as family conflicts that got out of control.
Domestic violence often happens in the context of forced or child marriage. In abusive relationships, there may be a cycle of abuse during which tensions rise and an act of violence is committed, followed by a period of reconciliation and calm.
Victims of domestic violence may be trapped in domestic violent situations through isolation , power and control , traumatic bonding to the abuser,  cultural acceptance, lack of financial resources, fear , shame , or to protect children.
As a result of abuse, victims may experience physical disabilities, dysregulated aggression, chronic health problems, mental illness, limited finances, and a poor ability to create healthy relationships. Victims may experience severe psychological disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder. Children who live in a household with violence often show psychological problems from an early age, such as avoidance, hypervigilance to threats, and dysregulated aggression which may contribute to vicarious traumatization.
The first known use of the term domestic violence in a modern context, meaning violence in the home, was in an address to the Parliament of the United Kingdom by Jack Ashley in Traditionally, domestic violence DV was mostly associated with physical violence.
Terms such as wife abuse , wife beating , wife battering , and battered woman were used, but have declined in popularity due to efforts to include unmarried partners, abuse other than physical, female perpetrators, and same-sex relationships. The term intimate partner violence is often used synonymously with domestic abuse or domestic violence ,  but it specifically refers to violence occurring within a couple relationship i.
Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family, including battering, sexual abuse of female children in the household, dowry -related violence, marital rape , female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, non-spousal violence and violence related to exploitation.
Prior to the mids, most legal systems viewed wife beating as a valid exercise of a husband's authority over his wife. Political agitation and the first-wave feminist movement during the 19th century led to changes in both popular opinion and legislation regarding domestic violence within the United Kingdom , the United States and other countries.
In most legal systems around the world, domestic violence has been addressed only from the s onward; indeed, before the lateth century, in most countries there was very little protection, in law or in practice, against DV. Again, most legal systems fail to criminalize circumstances where a wife is forced to have sexual relations with her husband against her will. In recent decades, there has been a call for the end of legal impunity for domestic violence, an impunity often based on the idea that such acts are private.
In its explanatory report it acknowledges the long tradition of European countries of ignoring, de jure or de facto , these forms of violence. The most prominent example is rape within marriage, which for a long time had not been recognised as rape because of the relationship between victim and perpetrator.
There has been increased attention given to specific forms of domestic violence, such as honor killings, dowry deaths, and forced marriages.
India has, in recent decades, made efforts to curtail dowry violence: the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act PWDVA was enacted in , following years of advocacy and activism by the women's organizations.
In , Widney Brown, advocacy director for Human Rights Watch, argued that there are similarities between the dynamics of crimes of passion and honor killings, stating that: "crimes of passion have a similar dynamic [to honor killings] in that the women are killed by male family members and the crimes are perceived as excusable or understandable".
Historically, children had few protections from violence by their parents, and in many parts of the world, this is still the case. For example, in Ancient Rome, a father could legally kill his children. Many cultures have allowed fathers to sell their children into slavery. Child sacrifice was also a common practice. Henry Kempe. Prior to this, injuries to children—even repeated bone fractures—were not commonly recognized as the results of intentional trauma.
Instead, physicians often looked for undiagnosed bone diseases or accepted parents' accounts of accidental mishaps such as falls or assaults by neighborhood bullies. Not all domestic violence is equivalent. Differences in frequency, severity, purpose, and outcome are all significant. Domestic violence can take many forms, including physical aggression or assault hitting, kicking, biting, shoving, restraining, slapping, throwing objects, beating up, etc.
Physical abuse is that involving contact intended to cause fear, pain, injury, other physical suffering or bodily harm. Physical violence can be the culmination of other abusive behavior, such as threats, intimidation, and restriction of victim self-determination through isolation, manipulation and other limitations of personal freedom.
Strangulation in the context of domestic violence has received significant attention. Homicide as a result of domestic violence makes up a greater proportion of female homicides than it does male homicides. Between 40 and 70 percent of women murdered in Canada, Australia, South Africa, Israel and the United States were killed by an intimate partner.
During pregnancy , a woman is at higher risk to be abused or long-standing abuse may change in severity, causing negative health effects to the mother and fetus. The risk of domestic violence for women who have been pregnant is greatest immediately after childbirth. Acid attacks , are an extreme form of violence in which acid is thrown at the victims, usually their faces, resulting in extensive damage including long-term blindness and permanent scarring.
In the Middle East and other parts of the world, planned domestic homicides, or honor killings , are carried out due to the belief of the perpetrators that the victim has brought dishonor upon the family or community.
Bride burning or dowry killing is a form of domestic violence in which a newly-married woman is killed at home by her husband or husband's family due to their dissatisfaction over the dowry provided by her family. The act is often a result of demands for more or prolonged dowry after the marriage. In , the National Crime Records Bureau reported 8, dowry deaths in India, but unofficial figures estimate at least three times this amount. Sexual abuse, is defined by World Health Organization as any sexual act, attempt to obtain a sexual act, unwanted sexual comments or advances, or acts to traffic , or otherwise directed, against a person's sexuality using coercion.
It also includes obligatory inspections for virginity and female genital mutilation. This could be because of underage immaturity, illness, disability, or the influence of alcohol or other drugs, or due to intimidation or pressure. In many cultures, victims of rape are considered to have brought dishonor or disgrace to their families and face severe familial violence, including honor killings. Female genital mutilation is defined by WHO as "all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.
Incest , or sexual contact between an adult and a child, is one form of familial sexual violence. For instance, in Malawi some parents arrange for an older man, often called a "hyena", to have sex with their daughters as a form of initiation.
Reproductive coercion also called "coerced reproduction" are threats or acts of violence against a partner's reproductive rights, health and decision-making; and includes a collection of behaviors intended to pressure or coerce a partner into becoming pregnant or ending a pregnancy.
In some cultures, marriage imposes a social obligation for women to reproduce. In northern Ghana, for example, payment of bride price signifies a woman's requirement to bear children, and women using birth control face threats of violence and reprisals.
Marital rape is non-consensual penetration perpetrated against a spouse. It is under-reported, under-prosecuted, and legal in many countries, due in part to the belief that through marriage, a woman gives irrevocable consent for her husband to have sex with her when he wishes.
The countries which ratified the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence , the first legally binding instrument in Europe in the field of violence against women,  are bound by its provisions to ensure that non-consensual sexual acts committed against a spouse or partner are illegal.
Emotional abuse or psychological abuse is a pattern of behavior that threatens, intimidates, dehumanizes or systematically undermines self-worth. Emotional abuse includes minimising, threats, isolation, public humiliation , unrelenting criticism, constant personal devaluation, repeated stonewalling and gaslighting. Economic abuse or financial abuse is a form of abuse when one intimate partner has control over the other partner's access to economic resources.
Economic abuse may involve preventing a spouse from resource acquisition, limiting what the victim may use, or by otherwise exploiting economic resources of the victim. A victim may be put on an allowance, allowing close monitoring of how much money is spent, preventing spending without the perpetrator's consent, leading to the accumulation of debt or depletion of the victim's savings.
Abusive relations have been associated with malnutrition among both mothers and children. In India, for example, the withholding of food is a documented form of family abuse. Domestic violence occurs across the world, in various cultures,  and affects people of all economic statuses;  however, indicators of lower socioeconomic status such as unemployment and low income have been shown to be risk factors for higher levels of domestic violence in several studies.
There continues to be some debate regarding gender differences with relation to domestic violence. Limitations of methodology , such as the conflict tactics scale , that fail to capture injury, homicide, and sexual violence rates,  context e.
For example, using broader terms like family violence rather than violence against women. Findings often indicate that the main or a primary motive for female-on-male intimate partner violence IPV is self-defense or other self-protection such as emotional health. It also stated that while self-defense and retaliation were common motivations, distinguishing between self-defense and retaliation was difficult.
Straus concluded that most IPV perpetrated by women against men is not motivated by self-defense. Sherry Hamby states that sexual violence is often left out of measures of IPV.
Researchers have also found significantly different outcomes for men and women in response to intimate partner violence. A review from the journal Psychology of Violence found that women suffered disproportionately as a result of intimate partner violence, especially in terms of injuries, fear, and posttraumatic stress disorder.
The authors found that when partner abuse is defined broadly to include emotional abuse, any kind of hitting, and who hits first, partner abuse is relatively even. They also stated if one examines who is physically harmed and how seriously, expresses more fear, and experiences subsequent psychological problems, domestic violence is significantly gendered toward women as victims.
Laws on domestic violence vary by country. While it is generally outlawed in the Western world , this is not the case in many developing countries. For instance, in , the United Arab Emirates's Supreme Court ruled that a man has the right to physically discipline his wife and children as long as he does not leave physical marks.
The United Nations Population Fund found violence against women and girls to be one of the most prevalent human rights violations worldwide, stating that "one in three women will experience physical or sexual abuse in her lifetime. Wife beating was made illegal nationally in the United States by The United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women states that " violence against women is a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between men and women, which has led to domination over and discrimination against women by men and to the prevention of the full advancement of women, and that violence against women is one of the crucial social mechanisms by which women are forced into a subordinate position compared with men".
The Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment, and Eradication of Violence against Women defines violence against women as "any act or conduct, based on gender, which causes death or physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, whether in the public or the private sphere".
The Maputo Protocol adopted a broader definition, defining violence against women as: "all acts perpetrated against women which cause or could cause them physical, sexual, psychological, and economic harm, including the threat to take such acts; or to undertake the imposition of arbitrary restrictions on or deprivation of fundamental freedoms in private or public life in peacetime and during situations of armed conflicts or of war".
The Istanbul Convention states: ""violence against women" is understood as a violation of human rights and a form of discrimination against women Article 3 — Definitions. Femicide is usually defined as the sex-based killing of women or girls by men, although the exact definitions vary.
Femicides often occur in the context of DV, such as honor killings or dowry killings. For statistical purposes, femicide is often defined as any killing of a woman. Domestic violence against men includes physical , emotional and sexual forms of abuse, including mutual violence.
Taking on violence against women in Africa
The incident was not unusual in Africa. In December a Kenyan police officer, Felix Nthiwa Munayo, got home late and demanded meat for his dinner. There was none in the house.
Adjiwanou, V. Studies in Family Planning 46 2 : — Ahmed, S. Economic status, education and empowerment: Implications for maternal health service utilization in developing countries. Aizer, A.
While increased economic autonomy may be expected to reduce the prevalence of intimate partner violence, the mechanisms and contexts through which this relationship manifests are not well understood. These results underscore that the relationship between financial inclusion and recent intimate partner violence is complex, follows many pathways, and is affected by context. In low and middle income countries, asset-based enablers of economic autonomy, gender norms and national context explained much of the relationship between financial inclusion and recent intimate partner violence. In those low and middle income countries with high levels of controlling behavior by male spouses, financial inclusion was associated with higher levels of recent intimate partner violence. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Data Availability: The data used in this study are all freely and publicly available and owned by multiple sources as indicated in Table 1 and S1 Table. Each source of data is fully referenced and can be accessed using the internet using the references included in the manuscript and Supporting information. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Gendered Experience of Interpersonal Violence in Urban and Rural Spaces: The Case of Ghana
Scholars explore critical topics from different disciplinary traditions using a variety of research methodologies and data sources. In addition, the book investigates emerging health concerns such as CVDs and cancers. Readers will learn that, while old health issues have persisted and assumed new dimensions, newer concerns have materialized and are gaining momentum. The inability of health systems to tackle these issues complicates matters in Africa, creating a sense of desperation that can only be successfully confronted through strong political will and strategic planning, grounded in further research. This book was originally published as several special issues of Health Care for Women International.
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In this paper, we explore gender norms held by men and women that might contribute to male perpetration of intimate partner violence IPV in Ghana. This qualitative research was conducted at the pre-intervention stage of a cluster randomized controlled trial. Our intervention uses community-based action teams to change social norms on gender and violence.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) Caused by Intimate Partner Violence
Domestic violence also named domestic abuse or family violence is violence or other abuse in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or cohabitation. Domestic violence is often used as a synonym for intimate partner violence , which is committed by a spouse or partner in an intimate relationship against the other spouse or partner, and can take place in heterosexual or same-sex relationships, or between former spouses or partners. In its broadest sense, domestic violence also involves violence against children, parents, or the elderly. It takes a number of forms, including physical , verbal , emotional , economic , religious , reproductive , and sexual abuse , which can range from subtle, coercive forms to marital rape and to violent physical abuse such as choking, beating, female genital mutilation , and acid throwing that results in disfigurement or death. Domestic murders include stoning , bride burning , honor killings , and dowry deaths which sometimes involve non-cohabitating family members. Globally, the victims of domestic violence are overwhelmingly women, and women tend to experience more severe forms of violence.
Metrics details. Domestic violence DV has become a global burden. The high occurrence of intimate partner violence IPV across the globe has implications for the socioeconomic wellbeing and health of children and women. The association between approval of wife-beating and background characteristics of women was examined by the use of a Binary Logistic Regression model. A higher proportion of respondents were from urban areas The results showed that few women 6. Policies, interventions, and campaigns must target Ghanaians without formal education and young adults on the need to uphold human rights in order to dissuade them from endorsing intimate partner violence.